- name, size and location
and Roman Britain
Angles, Saxons and Vikings
Church, tithes and glebe
From 1072 to 1541, Cottingham
lay within the diocese of Lincoln. Within this diocese, Peterborough Abbey was an
extremely powerful seat of the church, with English kings having bestowed land, gold, silver
and possessions on the Abbey (Kettering was given by King Edgar in 963, along with a great
swathe of land). Also, rich landowners frequently gave part of their lands to
religious establishments 'for the benefit of their souls', ie. to buy themselves
a place in heaven!
was under the control of Peterborough Abbey
at the time of the Domesday survey
Sometime between 1135 and 1154 the Abbey lost control of Cottingham but, according
the the Anglo Saxon Chronicle, the
Abbey regained ownership in 1197.
Under this relationship, Peterborough Abbey would have sublet some of the lands
it owned in return for rents - in the form of money and/or produce.
In 1539, Henry VIII passed the Act for the Dissolution of the Greater
Monasteries. Peterborough Abbey was dissolved and its
Abbot, John Chambers became
'warden of Cotingeham'. Following the dissolution, the Lincoln
diocese was subdivided, and the diocese of Peterborough was created. The
boundaries of the Peterborough diocese are roughly contiguous with the
boundaries of Northamptonshire together with Rutland.
the 1854 to 1914 Post Office and Kelly's Directories,
the rectory is recorded as being in the patronage of the principal and fellows
of Brasenose College, Oxford.
the 10th Century, villagers would have paid tithes to the church -
reluctantly! Originally, tithes were payments in kind
and took the form of one tenth of each villager's produce
(crops, wool, milk etc).
Tithes were split into 'great tithes' and 'small
tithes'. Commonly, great tithes were paid to the rector for the
area (who could possibly have been the Abbot of Peterborough) and
small tithes to the local
vicar. The vicar also earned income from
'glebe lands' which were set aside for him in the village.
At the dissolution of the monasteries
in 1539, much church land and the accompanying
rectorial tithes passed into lay ownership. These tithes became the personal
property of the new owners. Usually a vicar continued to have spiritual
oversight of the parish and to receive its vicarial tithes.
the Tithe Commutation Act permitted tithes to be commuted to rent charges. Each
piece of land therefore needed to be given a value, based on the amount of
produce that could be gained from it. Between 1838 and 1854,
registers or 'terriers' of land holdings were created, along with tithe maps,
showing the land held by each person, either as owner or tenant, and its value.
The 1890 Kelly's Directory records a tithe rent
charge for Cottingham of £631, and a gross yearly value of £589 including 60
acres of glebe. By 1914, the yearly value had reduced to £403.
The Tithe Act of 1936 attempted to replace tithes with
redemption annuities, payable for 60 years to 1996. These annuities were
to be paid to the State, with the original tithe owners receiving
compensation for the lost income. However, the scheme was interrupted by
the second world war and was suspended in 1956, by which time only half of
the tithe districts had been dealt with. The Finance Act of 1977 did away
with redemption annuities completely.
From 1143 until the dissolution of the
monasteries in 1539, there
was an abbey in
nearby Pipewell. The abbey was run by the Cistercian order of monks
founded in Citeaux near Dijon in Burgundy in 1098.The monks were
self-sufficient with their own infirmary, brewhouse, bakery, granary,
kitchens, warming house, gardens and fishponds. The abbey also created
watermills on Harper's Brook and, much later, a windmill, one of the first
to appear in England. The monks also looked after the sick, old and
poor - services that were sorely missed when the reformation closed
the monasteries down.
Nothing remains of the abbey now,
the last remnants having disappeared by 1720. However,
there are remnants to be found in the church at Great Oakley (floor tiles
set in the floor of the chancel, glazed green tiles, some Flemish glass
and a screen), an elaborately carved screen which went to the church at Brigstock
and a keyhole shaped window at the former manor house (now manor farm) in
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